MODULE VI – A METABOLIC & FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TO NUTRITION & EXERCISE
OBJECTIVES
  • Review the characteristics of detoxification and biotransformation
  • Discuss cellular detoxification of xenobiotics, phytochemicals and endogenous compounds with regard to hydrophilic andlipohilic compounds and routes of excretion
  • Review the 2 step process of biotransformation of lipophilic compounds
  • Learn Phase 1 reactions including Cytochrome P450 enzymes involving oxidation, reduction and hydrolysis
  • Review the role specific enzyme substrates MTHFR, BHMT, SAHH, CBS, GSH and GSSG play in transsulfuration pathway
  • Define impaired methylation with regard to undermethylation, remethylation defects and overmethylation
  • Discuss the balance of oxidative stress and anti-oxidant defense systems in the context of Phase 1
  • Review Phase 2 reactions including Glucuronosyl Transferase,Sulfo-transferases, Amino acid Conjugation, Glutathione Conjugation, and Acetylation
  • Define First and Second Pass metabolism, primary and secondary locations
  • Define Phase 3 Metabolism including xenobiotic transporters and antiporter export pump
  • Review the role nutrigenomics plays in medical toxicology
  • Review metabolic processes to target for nephroprotection during detoxification
  • Discuss the role VEGF and CRF play in chronic kidney disease
  • Review the impact of glutamine, nitric oxide, melatonin, and glutathione on kidney function
  • Discuss beneficial heavy metals including trace elements, diagnostic medical applications and industrial applications
  • Distinguish between macrominerals, required trace minerals, possible required trace minerals and toxic metals
  • Review the EPA’s assessment of sources of heavy metal exposure
  • List the top four most commonly occurring heavy metals
  • Define the most commonly involved organ systems affected by heavy metals
  • Distinguish symptomatology between acute and chronic exposures to heavy metals
  • Discuss the multiple effects of toxic metals on enzyme binding sites, displacement of nutrients, induction of deficiencies
  • Review main sources of heavy metals including crops, food production, cooking, water supply, air, occupational, medications and topical applications
  • Review symptoms associated with heavy metal burden
  • Define Persistent Organic Pollutant and the three major categories
  • Review biological effects of organochlorine persticides, induction of CYP enzymes and induction of Phase 1 enzymes
  • Review the role the microbiome plays in detoxification and human health
  • Discuss the impact of environmental pollutants on chronic medical conditions with regard to the gastrointestinal tract, nervous system, immune system, renal, endocrine and cardiovascular